Factors influencing the implementation of clinical pharmacy services on paediatric patient care in hospital settings
This systematic review (SR) was undertaken to identify and summarise any factors which influence the implementation of paediatric clinical pharmacy service (CPS) from service users’ perspectives in hospital settings.
Literature search from EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science (Core Collection), Cochrane Library, Scopus and CINAHL databases were performed in order to identify any relevant peer-reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies from inception until October 2019 by following the inclusion criteria. Boolean search operators were used which consisted of service, patient subgroup and attribute domains. Studies were screened independently and included studies were quality assessed using Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The study was reported against the ‘Enhancing Transparency in Reporting the Synthesis of Qualitative Research’ statement.
4199 citations were screened by title and abstract and 6 of 32 full publications screened were included. There were two studies that were graded as ‘high’ in quality, with four graded as ‘moderate’. The analysis has led to the identification of seven factors categorised in five predetermined overarching themes. These were: other healthcare professionals’ attitudes and acceptance; availability of clinical pharmacist on ward or outpatient settings; using drug-related knowledge to perform clinical activities; resources for service provision and coverage; involvement in a multidisciplinary team; training in the highly specialised areas and development of communication skills.
Evidence for paediatric CPS was sparse in comparison to a similar SR conducted in the adult population. An extensive knowledge gap within this area of practice has therefore been identified. Nevertheless, majority of the factors identified were viewed as facilitators which enabled a successful implementation of CPS in paediatrics. Further research is needed to identify more factors and exploration of these would be necessary in order to provide a strong foundation for strategic planning for paediatric CPS implementation and development.